Dementia is not a specific disease. Rather, it is an impaired ability to remember, think, or make decisions that interfere with performing daily activities. A common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease.

Although dementia mostly affects older adults, it is not a part of normal aging. Dementia is an umbrella term for several diseases affecting memory, other cognitive abilities, and behavior that interfere significantly with a person's ability to maintain their activities of daily living

Normal aging may include weakening muscles and bones, stiffening of arteries and vessels, and some age-related memory changes that may present as:

Forgetting the name of a friend

Misplacing car keys at times

Struggling to find words

Forgetting recent events


Difficulties with memory are the most well-known first signs of dementia.

Some very common symptoms of Dementia are-

• Reasoning, judgment, and problem-solving skills

• Visual perception beyond typical age-related changes in vision.

• Cognitive: mental decline, confusion in the evening hours, disorientation, inability to speak or understand language, making things up, mental confusion, or inability to recognise common things. Difficulty concentrating

• Behavioral: irritability, personality changes, restlessness, mood swings, nervousness, loneliness, lack of restraint, or wandering and getting lost.

• Psychological: depression and hallucination

• Muscular: inability to combine muscle movements or unsteady walking

Common symptoms are jumbled speech or sleep disorders and communication disorders.

Causes & Risks

• Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older adults, but there are other causes of dementia too. Depending on the cause, some dementia symptoms might be reversible.

• The strongest known risk factor for dementia is increasing age, with most cases affecting those 65 years and older. Aging puts people at a higher risk.

• Family history – Individuals with parents or siblings with dementia are more likely to develop dementia themselves.

• Poor heart health - High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking increase the risk of dementia if not treated

• Dementia can sometimes develop suddenly and quickly get worse, but it can also develop gradually over many months or years.

Test & Diagnosis

Even if the cause may not be possible to treat, it's always good to know what type of dementia a person has. Diagnosis can be as follows-

• A healthcare provider can perform tests on attention, memory, problem-solving, and other cognitive abilities to see if there is cause for concern.

• A physical exam, blood tests, and brain scans like a CT or MRI can help determine an underlying cause.

• The healthcare provider diagnoses the cause of dementia by asking questions about the person's medical history and doing a physical exam, and mental status examination.

• Tests can help the doctor find out if the loss of mental abilities is caused by a condition that can be treated.

• Understanding the type can help the doctor prescribe the treatment.


Treating dementia depends on its underlying cause…

• Most of the medications available are used to treat Alzheimer's disease as it's the most common form of dementia. They can help to temporarily reduce the symptoms.

• Neurodegenerative dementias, like Alzheimer’s disease, do not have a cure, though there are medications that can help protect the brain or manage symptoms such as anxiety.

• Very importantly - Leading a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, healthy eating, and maintaining social contacts, decreases the chances of developing chronic diseases and may reduce the number of people with dementia.

• A lot of people may develop - behavioral and psychological symptoms. The symptoms include increased agitation, anxiety, wandering, and aggression.

Living With

Discuss with the patient's loved ones.

Talk about seeing a medical provider about the observed changes soon and about the issue of driving and always carrying an ID.

Medical assessment - Be with a provider that you are comfortable with. Ask about the Medicare Annual Wellness examination.


• Changes in behavior - Dementia can lead to changes in behavior such as agitation, aggression, anxiety, wandering, and even hallucinations or delusions. These behavioral changes can be challenging for both the individual and their caregivers.

• Issues Communicating - As dementia progresses, individuals may find it difficult to express themselves or understand others. This can lead to frustration, social withdrawal, and difficulties in relationships.

• Fluctuating emotions - Mood swings are common in individuals with dementia. They may experience times of sadness, apathy, or mood fluctuations due to the changes taking place in their brain.

• Affecting the lungs – Pneumonia can be present.

• Inability to perform self-care tasks.

• Inadequate nutrition
Warning - BNC - Best Neuro Care
The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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